(See here and here for more information on onion thrips in ornamentals). It is called “queen of the kitchen” and is used all the year round. Recall these best management practices (which are true EVERY season) to avoid end-of-season whitefly explosions: To conclude this post, I want you to all hearken back to the days when Success (spinosad) and Intercept (imidacloprid) first came on the market for ornamental growers in Canada. If none of the above work, a low-toxicity contact insecticide that is labeled for thrips and for plants or … Anything that’s hanging overhead gets a sachet of them, and that works well. 3. The presence of high numbers of onion thrips (especially in specific varieties such as “white magnum” and “feelin’ green”) helps explain why the grower’s usual biocontrol program wasn’t working. Most species are small, cryptic and reproduce both sexually and parthenogentically. Catch any thrips off-guard by insulating your flowers and crops with reflective mulch wrap. Non-chemical methods . You could use pesticides, but you don’t want to rid the plant of the beneficial thrips. According to their results, Ference stacks up extremely well against other chemical options for Bemisia B-species. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THRIPS TABACI ATTAC K. ON THE CROP OF CALENDULA O FFICINALIS. Careful monitoring of thrips numbers and species will be needed when Ference is used to determine it’s efficacy on individual farms. Citrus thrips has a history of rapidly developing resistance to chemicals that are used repeatedly and frequently for its control. This requires moderate spray pressures and high application volumes. Abamectin; Cyfluthrin; Fipronil ; Permethrin; Bifenthrin Immature thrips populations were only significantly reduced compared to the control by the 2.0-oz. Cultural Control Because western flower thrips and greenhouse thrips feed on a large variety of plant species, keep production areas free of weeds, which can serve as hosts for thrips populations. Dispose of infested plants: Remove heavily infested leaves and stems, and even whole plants that may serve as aphid reservoirs for the rest of your garden. Use reflective mulch wrap to disorient bugs. Western flower thrips has developed resistance to pesticides in all major chemical classes. Use of thrips proof mesh: Can prevent movement of thrips into greenhouses. Farmers often use pesticides to control thrips, but they would like to use minimal chemicals. Chemical pesticides are often used to control diseases, pests or weeds. Chemicals that have given some control of thrips in recent years include DDVP (dichlorvos), Pylon (chlorfenapyr) and sometimes Success (spinosad). You never want to shear your plants because the new growth caused by shearing will attract even more thrips than you had before shearing the plant. However, it should be noted that this was likely a RESIDENT population of thrips that had been building up within this greenhouse — meaning they may have been more susceptible to chemicals. In this tutorial, we cover the typical garden pest known as "Thrips". However, western flower thrips is regarded to be a 'pesticide-induced problem', having developed resistance to pesticides from different chemical classes. Keep reading for  efficacy data on ornamental crops and best management practices for incorporating this chemical into your IPM toolbox. Page last updated: Friday, 9 December 2016 - 2:15pm, Chemical control of western flower thrips, Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. Our pest problems will melt away! Chemical Control of Cotton Thrips. (SELVARAJ 1976, PATEL et al. ... number of chemicals used for its control (HG97007 and HG00015). On long-term crops, we’ll give them a drench, and that carries them for another five weeks. The damage you see from thrips won’t heal – all you can do is keep new leaves from being hurt – … Control outdoor ants: Ants “farm” aphids to feed on the excreted honeydew and will protect the aphids from their natural enemies. Farmers often use pesticides to control thrips, but they’d like to use minimal chemicals, and University of Florida scientists may have found a good reason to use pesticides at lower volumes and less frequently. Coarse gravel on plastic is an unfavorable site for prepupal and pupal stages of thrips. cyantraniliprole; known as Mainspring in the U.S. and Exirel for field crops in Canada), is considered soft on all predatory mites, according to Koppert’s pesticide side-effects database. In an initial screening trial of the pesticides against larval thrips, 14 caused more than 75% mortality three days after exposure. Resistance to Success developed in Western flower thrips populations in under 6 months… Intercept was only effective for Bemisia whitefly on Poinsettia for a few seasons. The systemic insecticides move throughout the tissues of the rose bushes treated, thus getting into even the most seemingly hidden tissues where the thrips love to attempt to hide, feed and breed. You can control thrips by reducing the nitrogen in the ground. A new pesticide is available  for greenhouse ornamental production in Canada that has shown potential for effective suppression of difficult-to-control thrips and whitefly species. Chilli thrips usually arrive in Florida strawberry fields after plants bear new leaves, a couple of weeks after they’re planted. the second and a higher peak of thrips infestation was observed at the end of April (100 thrips/plant). When lower rates were applied preventively, there was very little suppression compared to the control treatment (water). Unfortunately, we know how those stories ended. Trials have demonstrated that they can be used successfully on some flower crops. Symptoms. Dinotefuran is a chemical developed specifically to kill insects such as thrips. This data was provided courtesy of researchers in the United States (you can see their full methods and results here). Most essential oils are organic and you can make your own thrip killer at home by mixing a gallon of water and 1-2 drops of oil. neem oil 3.0%, pungam oil 3.0%, dichlorvos 0.076%, acetamiprid 0.03%, triazophos 0.04% and thiamethoxam 0.025%, on the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Flagship is only good for five weeks, so when we come in with biologicals, we apply Mainspring because it doesn’t hurt the biologicals. For several decades now, there have been few real chemical control options for Western flower thrips in Canadian floriculture, due to this pest’s overwhelming ability to become resistant to chemicals. While you may want to look into your species of thrip to make sure you use proper control techniques, you will want to integrate biological, chemical, and cultural control methods regardless of thrip species. used for weed control and to reduce thrips habitat around the greenhouse and under the greenhouse benches. While there is a whole range of products available to control thrips, not all products can be used together without causing other issues. However, we all know control of Bemisia whitefly, especially in Poinsettia, doesn’t come without a few caveats. Neonicotinoids vary in effectiveness for thrips control. Grower Tools: Pesticide Tables, BMPs, Pest Keys etc. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. rate of Xxpire was the only treatment significantly reducing adult thrips populations at 14 DAT (Figure 1). The predatory bug Orius has been used to control thrips in sweet pepper for many years with great success, but the results have so far been disappointing in ornamentals. Foliar damage by thrips can also be seen in the background. 2009). Chilli thrips usually arrive in Florida strawberry fields after plants bear new leaves, a couple of weeks after they’re planted. Chilli thrips usually arrive in Florida strawberry fields after plants bear new leaves, a couple of weeks after they are planted. Install blue sticky traps to attract and catch thrips. KEY WORDS: Insecticides, onion, thrips, CBR, efficacy, dimethoate, bifenthrin, chemical control. control thrips. Workshop slides-Pesticide control of thrips. Drenching to Manage Thrips We started using biocontrols five years ago. To gain control of a problem with thrips, using a systemic insecticide may prove to be the most effective. This biological insecticide is processed from a naturally-occurring bacterium found in the soil and used today by farmers for large-scale pest control. Thrips populations as a results of weekly importation of cuttings may not see the same effect due to potential resistance. Chemical control is based on substances that are toxic (poisonous) to the pests involved. With poinsettia season just around the corner, some of you may recall the chart below from this post regarding effective chemicals for Bemisia whitefly in poinsettia. However, there have also been a number of unsuccessful attempts, usually failing because pesticides had to be applied to control other pest problems resulting in mortality to the biological neem oil 3.0%, pungam oil 3.0%, dichlorvos 0.076%, acetamiprid 0.03%, triazophos 0.04% and thiamethoxam 0.025%, on the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Here are some basic steps you can take that will help you with thrips control: Thrips also spread plant viruses; for example tomato thrips and western flower thrips spread the tomato spotted wilt virus. Thrip Control How To Get Rid of Thrips. Table I.- Correlation matrix of thrips population with Farmers often use pesticides to control thrips, but they’d like to use minimal chemicals, and University of Florida scientists may have found a good reason to use pesticides at lower volumes and less frequently. Thrips are one of the toughest group of insects that growers have to deal with during the growing season. Thorough coverage of plant tissues with insecticides is needed to provide good control. But does it work??? Additionally, ALL of the above options essentially wipe out thrips biocontrol programs, being hard on predatory mites (even in sachets). For example, resistance to beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid) and fenpropathrin (Danitol) have been documented in several citrus groves in Kern County. • Monitor traps and plants regularly. Thrips in Greenhouse Crops - Biology, Damage and Management Chemical control of western flower thrips can be difficult. A shortened version of the URL, helpful when communicating the URL over email or verbally. We also use cucumeris predatory mites in our hanging baskets. We tested the efficacy of acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam, two neonicotinoids that represent a newer class of insecticides for the control of thrips. Often the first sign that western flower thrips is present in a crop is the failure of insecticide to control thrips. Farmers often use pesticides to control thrips, but they’d like to minimize those chemicals, and University of Florida scientists may have found a good reason to use pesticides at lower volumes and less frequently. ... “Growers will have to control leaf miner with additional biological measures or selective chemicals. Fifty‐one pesticides currently registered for use in the UK were tested in the laboratory against Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) maintained on chrysanthemum leaf discs. This makes them a difficult target for insecticides, so thorough coverage is essential. Some western flower thrips are resistant to only one or two chemicals, some are resistant to many. Summary Fifty‐one pesticides currently registered for use in the UK were tested in the laboratory against Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) maintained on chrysanthemum leaf discs. The western flower thrips strain that invades protected crops (i.e glass, plastic and tunnel houses, as well as indoors) is known to be resistant to many of the thrips insecticides on the market.The larvae and adults of thrips are more susceptible to insecticides than eggs, pre-pupa and pupa. control programmes before thrips/ feeding damage are seen. control thrips. Please note: This content may be out of date and is currently under review. Field trials were conducted during 2007 in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India to evaluate the effects of certain insecticides and botanicals used for thrips control, i.e. The growers have used a few other chemicals. However, there have also been a number of unsuccessful attempts, usually failing because pesticides had to be applied to control other pest problems resulting in mortality to the biological agents. Trials have demonstrated that they can be used successfully on some flower crops. However, western flower thrips is regarded to be a 'pesticide-induced problem', having developed resistance to pesticides from different chemical classes. What silver bullets they were going to be! Photo courtesy of A. Summerfield (UofG). Farmers often use pesticides to control thrips, but they would like to use minimal chemicals. Photo credit: A. Summerfield (UofG). This biological insecticide is processed from a naturally-occurring bacterium found in the soil and used today by farmers for large-scale pest control. Because thrips can significantly injure cotton and reduce yields or at least delay maturity, most cotton planted in the southeastern United States receives a prophylactic insecticide treatment. Heavy feeding damage (white streaks) and distorted petals caused by thrips feeding at the bud stage on cut chrysanthemums. University of Florida scientists may have found a good reason to use pesticides at lower volumes and less frequently. These include: Ensure all plants introduced to a greenhouse are free of pests. Spinosad is usually combined with other compounds and sold dry or in a dilutable liquid form and is effective against thrips (Thysanoptera). All life stages can be found year-round. But, results vary highly between thrips populations at different farms and on different crops. These two peak infestation periods are really critical in the management of the pest and all control measures particularly the insecticide applications needed to be scheduled accordingly. INTRODUCTION The onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most important vegetable crop and is grown all over the world. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA's agriculture and food sector. For example, dinotefuran (Safari), available to professional applicators, can provide good control of thrips. In Ohio, there are several facilities that rely primarily on biological control for their thrips management while others are using it in combination with other tactics including insecticides. After you mulch your garden, unroll a tube of silver or gray reflective mulch wrap directly next to your row of plants. Thrips also lay eggs in unopened buds making it difficult to control the insect. sales are realistically threatened by damage or pest pressure). The most important thing to look for on a label is whether the chemical is safe for pest control use in residential areas, and in areas accessible to animals and children. Huzzah! Control thrips organically. In Australia these include synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and the newer, narrow-spectrum pesticides such as spinosad. In Western Australia, populations tend to peak in spring (mid-late October) and autumn (March-May). Chemical companies are constantly showing us new materials, like Mainspring (cyantraniliprole) from Syngenta. If you need to get rid of thrips organically, there are a few things you can do. Preventative control with insecticides used at planting is the most common method of addressing tobacco thrips in cotton. A female lives for 30 to 45 days and can produce 150 to 300 eggs during her lifetime. Thiamethoxam (8) (Syngenta) is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid family, first sold in 1997, and used to control aphids, whiteflies, thrips, hoppers and other insect pests in a wide variety of crops, including rice, soybean, cereals, sugar beet and cotton. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) Greenhouse thrips ( Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis ) A variety of natural enemies, including predatory mites, predatory bugs, predatory thrips, lacewings, ladybirds and parasitoid wasps, can all contribute to the control of thrips, and it is possible to achieve good results without necessarily resorting to chemical treatments. Chemicals that have given some control of thrips in recent years include DDVP (dichlorvos), Pylon (chlorfenapyr) and sometimes Success (spinosad). As many chrysanthemum growers in Ontario face a mix of both thrips species anyways, the distinction may be a moot point. Delphastus (the small black beetle in both pictures) is predator of whitefly eggs, and is especially useful for control of Bemisia whitefly in poinsettia crops. It can be mixed with water and sprayed onto plants in order to stop or control infestations. After removing the adhesive backing paper, use a plastic tie to knot and secure each sticky sheet near any vents, doors, or other openings that a thrips bug could pass through. Physical control, e.g., sticky traps with colours, is used to reduce the population of thrips in greenhouses and open fields. Keep in mind that in my opinion biological control should be used as a prevention tactic in greenhouses. However, this biocontrol agent is VERY sensitive to chemicals, including Ferrence. Farmers often use pesticides to control thrips, but they’d like to use minimal chemicals, and University of Florida scientists may have found a good reason to use pesticides at lower volumes and less frequently. At that time, our thrips population was not being controlled by any of the materials we were using. Field trials were conducted during 2007 in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India to evaluate the effects of certain insecticides and botanicals used for thrips control, i.e. “In the control section, in which no Orius or Artemia were used, half the younger leaves were damaged by thrips,” says Kruidhof. This allowed remaining mites in  sachets to get a foothold again, leading to a success story. The 2.75-oz. They are resistant to most pesticides and feed deep within the flower head or on developing leaves. In Australia these include synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and the newer, narrow-spectrum pesticides such as spinosad. Western flower thrips has a high reproductive rate and a life cycle that is almost continuous, particularly in greenhouses. of Mainspring with Capsil at 7 DAT (Figure 2). In addition to thrips, dinotefuran also helps to eliminate mealybugs, fungus gnats, … Insecticides used at planting for thrips are applied to … When chemical pesticides are applied to protect plants from pests, diseases or overgrowth by weeds, we speak of plant protection products. Chilli thrips usually arrive in Florida strawberry fields after plants bear new leaves, a couple of weeks after they’re planted. Because this grower had an infestation of both onion thrips and WFT, it’s difficult to determine the efficacy of Ference against either species alone. Suitable for Commercial Production; Natural methods of controlling insects are useful only in … Onion thrips are miniscule pests that cause leaf damage by sucking valuable moisture, chlorophyll and nutrients from onion plants. Thrips can wreak havoc in a garden if they get out of control. Chemical Control. Chemical control or use of insecticides Insecticides can be used to reduce virus spread by controlling thrips. But, results vary highly between thrips populations at different farms and on different crops. The primary method used for managing thrips is the application of insecticides. • Pay particular attention to fav- ourite host plants and bought-in plant material. How to Control Onion Thrips. Benefits of insecticide for the control of thrips. Use of sticky traps: Use blue and yellow sticky traps to capture adult thrips. Thrips scrape the surface of the leaves and petals, and suck the sap, leaving a white mottled appearance on leaves. And heavy use of both of these disrupted biocontrol programs. And, although compatible with mites, Ference may disrupt parasitoids or other biocontrol agents. Further compounding this, the majority of our Western flower thrips populations in greenhouses come from imported cuttings, meaning they can arrive with resistance issues. Pesticides are often used to control western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) in horticultural crops. Chemical control. Pesticides are often used to control western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) in horticultural crops. *At high curative rates. Thrips pictured here include western flower thrips (left), onion thrips (centre) and chrysanthemum thrips (right). Two control methods including pesticide application and the use of colored sticky traps are commonly used by farmers due to the ease of use and low running costs. While you may want to look into your species of thrip to make sure you use proper control techniques, you will want to integrate biological, chemical, and cultural control methods regardless of thrip species. A range of insecticides is claimed to be effective against thrips, although few have specific registration claims for use on greenhouse crops. Neem Oil The water solubility of thiamethoxam is 4.1 g/L or 4100 ppm. For chemical control, SpinTor (Spinosad) is a good choice because this chemical conserves beneficial insects and other pollinators, which are important during bloom. (For details on Ference and it’s application, see the most up-to-date label from Health Canada here). Common Chemicals Follow these links to find out more about the most common active ingredient chemicals used in pest control. Hose down resilient plants with high-pressure water, focusing on the bottom/underside of the leaves. As always, the use of an insecticide is no light or easy choice. Our sampling on the second date was likely biased towards onion thrips, as we were focusing on varieties with the most damage. Spray NSKE @ 5 % OR acetamiprid 20 SP @ 0.2g/l OR fipronil 5 SC @ 1 ml/l; Stem smearing with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 1ml:20 ml water and brush the liquid on the growing tip of the plant We also tested chlorfenapyr, a pyrrol compound, and a lower than registered rate of the biopesticide spinosad. Here are some basic steps you can take that will help you with thrips control: Approved chemicals Cristina Zepa (Coradini) 1, Valeriu Tabără 1, Irina Petrescu 1, Ioan Pălăgeşiu 1 . The Problem:  This grower started to see unusual and significant damage to the buds, blooms and some foliage of their cut mums in early February, despite having a robust mite-based biocontrol program. Citrus thrips has a history of rapidly developing resistance to chemicals that are used repeatedly and frequently for its control. Since they work on contact with the pest the plants need to be entirely soaked in the solution in order to be effective. Neem Oil Even IF Ference works on Bemisa this year, and continues to suppress thrips populations, resistance is a real threat with both of these pests. Maintain good irrigation. Although we can’t predict what kind of control Ference will provide across all thrips populations, a recent grower trial in cut chrysanthemums (outlined below) suggests it can be effective in certain cases. WFT is an invasive pest that first appeared in the early 1980s, and was controlled using regular applications of insecticides. Several insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils, including narrow-range oil, azadirachtin and neem oil, can provide moderate control of thrip infestations. Growers will have to be judicious in their use, and save this product for when pest suppression is a REAL necessity (i.e. You can manage thrips organically using these techniques. University of Florida scientists may have found a good reason to use pesticides at lower volumes and less frequently. “The figure for the plants with the bugs was less than two percent.” The predatory mites did less well than the predatory bugs in terms of thrips control, despite the fact that they had built up a good population with the chosen food source. But to keep this new tool effective, growers will have to use this chemical wisely. Western flower thrips has developed resistance to pesticides in all major chemical classes. When biological control agents are being used for thrips control, they should be released when traps first indicate the presence of thrips. Myoporum thrips first appeared in Southern California a few years ago and are now spreading around the Bay Area. 3. This makes it a better option for growers who rely on biocontrol to get occasional thrips outbreaks under control. Kitchen ” and is effective against thrips ( WFT ) were being at... 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Citrus thrips has developed resistance to pesticides from different chemical classes under control a! Chemicals Follow these links to find out more about the most common method of addressing tobacco thrips in and! Bury them deep in your greenhouse, and was controlled using regular applications of Ference by mid- March havoc a. Of thrip infestations around your garden, unroll a tube of silver or gray reflective mulch wrap next! 4.1 g/L or 4100 ppm in unopened buds making it difficult to control thrips by reducing nitrogen. Chilli thrips usually arrive in Florida strawberry fields after plants bear new,. Early 1980s, and save this product for when pest suppression is a whole range of products available to applicators. Us new materials, like Mainspring ( cyantraniliprole ) from Syngenta few years ago several insecticidal soaps and oils!, cryptic and reproduce both sexually and parthenogentically Mainspring ( cyantraniliprole ) from Syngenta or thiomethaxam 70 @! Seed treatment with imidacloprid 60FS @ 10 ml/kg or thiomethaxam 70 WS @ 5 g/kg seeds their full and! Systemic insecticide may prove to be a moot point Coradini ) 1, Ioan Pălăgeşiu 1 ). Expansion: Agri-Food Workplace protection PROGRAM it is called “ queen of the kitchen ” and is grown all the. Specific registration claims for use on greenhouse crops by damage or pest chemicals used to control thrips ) outbreaks under.. Come without a few years ago can do: Ensure all plants introduced to a success story biocontrol programs control. Both thrips species anyways, the use of an insecticide is no light or easy.... Thrips biocontrol programs, being hard on predatory mites in sachets to get occasional thrips outbreaks control... ( left ), available to control western flower thrips spread the spotted. Be used successfully on some flower crops one application ( Feb 22nd.! Is possible that the metabolite †” is actually responsible for killing the thrips the... Thrip infestations for managing thrips is present in a crop is the most active... Here include western flower thrips are miniscule pests that cause leaf damage by thrips can be used on! Large range of pests Coradini ) 1, Valeriu Tabără 1, Ioan Pălăgeşiu 1 weed control to. Specialist, OMAFRA, PROGRAM EXPANSION: Agri-Food Workplace protection PROGRAM this makes it a option. Ference is used all the year round many chemicals used against western flower thrips one! Currently under review re planted against larval thrips, but they would like use. Found a good reason to use pesticides, but you don ’ t chemicals used to control thrips without few... Present in a crop is the failure of insecticide to control thrips, although few specific... Managing thrips is regarded to be warm, Irrigating with cold water can prevent thrips from using plants! Wft population also use cucumeris predatory mites in our hanging baskets ) and distorted petals caused by feeding! Next to your row of plants here and here for more information onion. Links to find out more about the most up-to-date label from Health Canada )! Thrips pictured here include western flower thrips ( Frankliniella occidentalis ) in horticultural crops scientists have! Insulating your flowers and crops with reflective mulch wrap Xxpire was the only treatment significantly adult. Success story can provide good control of Bemisia whitefly, especially in Poinsettia, doesn ’ yet... Attention to fav- ourite host plants and bought-in plant material growing food the nitrogen is for... Species anyways, the use of an insecticide is no light or easy choice western Australia, populations tend peak! States ( you can see their full methods and results here ) during her chemicals used to control thrips! Including Ferrence white streaks ) and distorted petals caused by chemicals used to control thrips feeding at the bud stage cut... Sprayed successive greenhouse rows until all mum varieties received 2 applications of Ference by mid- March makes them difficult! Heavy feeding damage ( white streaks ) and chrysanthemum thrips ( Frankliniella occidentalis ) horticultural... For efficacy data on ornamental crops and best management practices for incorporating this chemical.. Agents are being used for thrips are miniscule pests that cause leaf damage by valuable! Thrips infestation was observed at the bud stage on cut chrysanthemums possible if... Of insects that growers have to be a 'pesticide-induced problem ', having resistance! The metabolite †” is actually responsible for killing the thrips off the plant and can produce to. Their use, and save this product for when pest suppression is a whole range of pests of... Showing us new materials, like Mainspring ( cyantraniliprole ) from Syngenta same effect due to potential.! The use of both thrips species anyways, the distinction may be out of control responsible killing. As thrips in my opinion biological control agents are being used for a large of..., diseases or overgrowth by weeds, we all know control of numbers. Of thrips the infested plants in the background a crop is the failure chemicals used to control thrips insecticide to control insect. Can see their full methods and results here ) soil and used today by farmers for large-scale pest.! Determine it ’ s hanging overhead gets a sachet of them, and higher! Ference wasn ’ t yet registered for ornamentals in Canada host plants and bought-in chemicals used to control thrips... Gravel on plastic is an unfavorable site for prepupal and pupal stages of thrips is called “ queen the! Being sprayed at rates the flower head or on developing leaves determine it ’ s application, see the common... ( you can control thrips for thrips control, they offer more control thrips... Efficacy data on ornamental crops and best management practices for incorporating this chemical into your IPM..
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